Reference tools provide background information, the who, what, where and when -- and a bit of the how and why -- for any topic. They include subject and biographical dictionaries and encyclopedias, almanacs, chronologies, directories and atlases. Many, especially dictionaries and encyclopedias, are now available online. Many others, especially historical atlases and chronologies are still only available in print.
- Encyclopaedia Britannica online
- access to the most reputable online general encyclopedia
- Oxford international encyclopedia of peace
- excellent, authoritative subject encyclopedia
- Oxford reference online Premium
- Gale virtual reference library
- access to dozens of Gale online reference tools
- for example,
- CQ Researcher
- covers current and controversial issues
Wikipedia can be a great quick help in identifying the "who, what, when and where" of any given issue -- subject to later verification. Librarians use it all the time. However, it can be very suspect when it comes to "how and why" questions especially those involving conflict situations. Use it but use it with caution!
Selected examples of print reference sources. All titles are located in the General Reference Collection (1st floor, Hesburgh Library). Please note the call number "pockets." If you go to these call numbers in the Reference Collection, you should find similar titles.
- Encyclopedia of women and gender. HQ 1115 .E43 2001
- Encyclopedia of gender and society. HQ 1115 .E54 2009
- Routledge international encyclopedia of women. HQ 1115 .R69 2000
- Women's studies encyclopedia. HQ 1115 .W645 1999
- Political and historical encyclopedia of women. HQ 1236.5 .E85 E52 2003
- Encyclopedia of violence, peace, & conflict. HM 291 .E625 2008
- Human rights in the United States : a dictionary and documents KF 4747.5 .C37 2000
- Historical dictionary of human rights and humanitarian organizations JC 571 .G655 1997
- Encyclopedia of human rights issues since 1945 JC 571 .L2747 1999
- International encyclopedia of human rights : freedoms, abuses, and remedies JC 571 .M3243 2000
- World at risk: a global issues sourcebook. JZ 1242 .W67 2002
- Handbook of peace and conflict studies. JZ 5538 .H36 2007
KRESGE LAW LIBRARY
The Kresge Law Library has an excellent collection of Human Rights materials and is open to all members of the Notre Dame Community.
- A to Z maps online (political, physical, outline & others)
- United Nations Cartographic Section (all regions but not all countries)
- All the Worlds Maps (detail and type vary)
- Atlapedia Online (regional)
- Blank & Outline Maps (outline only)
- Google Earth (no printing)
In addition there is a large collection of current and historical atlases in the Hesburgh Library Reference Collection (first floor -- non-circulating).
- The Penguin atlas of women in the world. Hesburgh Library Reference Collection G 1046 .E1 S4 2009
- Atlas of gender and development. Hesburgh Library General Collection HQ 1237.5 .D44 A85 2010
- United Nations Statistics Division (demongraphics)
- UNESCO Institute for Statistics (cultural)
- International financial statistics online service (financial)
- World development indicators (economic)
- Source OECD (economic)
- ProQuest Statistical Insight (fomerly) LexisNexis Statistical) (tables)
- Proquest Statistical Datasets (formerly LexisNexis Datasets) (5.2 billion data points)
Additional resources may be found from the Libraries homepage by going to Data, statistics and survey results.
- Statistical handbook on violence in America. Hesburgh Library Reference Collection HN 90 .V5 S833 1996
- The world's women...: trends and statistics. Hesburgh Library Reference Collection HQ 1154 .W952